Poppy (multifaceted Version) [NRO]
Poppy was the follow-on ELINT system, which succeeded the Grab ELINT satellite system. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) proposed and developed Poppy, an electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite system in 1962. Poppy's mission was to collect radar emissions from Soviet air and missile defense radars. The primary organizations that supported the Poppy Program included NRO, NSA, NRL, the Naval Security Group, the Air Force Security Service, the Army Security Agency and the Office of Naval Intelligence.
The Poppy Program was a component of the NRO Program C and NRL designed, developed, and operated Poppy satellites within Program C. NRO Program A provided launch support for Poppy. NSA received, analyzed, and reported findings derived from the intercepted radar signals from Poppy. The Naval Security Group, with support from Air Force Security Service and Army Security Agency, coordinated field operations and maintained and operated Poppy ground sites.
Poppy 5 had been modified to improve collection of ABM radar signals. This required equipment better able to detect the signals, more overlap in the suspected ABM frequency ranges, and upgrades to the ground system and recorders to improve quality. The satellites of the last two launches of this series added ocean surveillance to their tasks and became prototypes for the later NOSS satellites.
The Poppy Program operated from December 1962 through August 1977 using satellites of three configurations: 20 in series, a 24 in series and a multifaceted series. A total of seven Poppy satellites launches were conducted, with two satellites of the earlier Grab series having also been renamed to Poppy. Each launch consisted of up to four Poppy satellites and a number of secondary satellites. Poppy's average useful life on orbit was 34 months. At the time of the last mission, the mission live was nealy 6 years. Poppy 7 was launched on 14 December 1971 and operated until August 1977.
The third generation of Poppy satellites used an enlarged 27 in (68 cm) diameter satellite structure with a length of 81 – 86 cm. It featured a multifaceted surface covered with solar cells for increased power. The satellites used 2- or 3-axis gravity gradient stabilization and ammonia microthrusters for station keeping in order to maintain the orbital configuration of the Poppy constellation.
Some of the multifaceted Poppy satellites carried a secondary payload. Under this name these Poppy satellites were known to the public with the Poppy payload remaining secret.
The Poppy satellites were succeeded by the NOSS-1 (Parcae, White Cloud) ELINT triplets, which were dedicated to ocean surveillance.
|Type / Application:||ELINT, ocean surveillance|
|Operator:||Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy|
|Contractors:||Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)|
|Propulsion:||Ammonia cold gas microthrusters|
|Power:||Solar cells, batteries|
|Lifetime:||ca. 34 month (average)|
|Mass:||83 kg (#7B); 72 kg (#7C); 101 kg (#7D); 107 kg (#8A); 101 kg (#8B); 112 kg (#8C); 107 kg (#8D); 123 kg (#9A, 9B); 128 kg (#9C, 9D)|
|Orbit:||926 km × 941 km, 70° (#7B-7D); 909 km × 937 km, 70° (#8A-8D); 981 km × 1000 km, 70° (#9A-9D)|
|Poppy 5B (NRL-PL 152, GGSE 4)||1967-053C||31.05.1967||Va SLC-2W||Thor-DM21 Agena-D||with Poppy 5A, Poppy 5C, Poppy 5D (GGSE 5), Timation 1, Calsphere 3, Calsphere 4, NRL-PL 150B, OPS 5712|
|Poppy 5C (NRL-PL 153)||1967-053H||31.05.1967||Va SLC-2W||Thor-DM21 Agena-D||with Poppy 5A, Poppy 5B (GGSE 4), Poppy 5D (GGSE 5), Timation 1, Calsphere 3, Calsphere 4, NRL-PL 150B, OPS 5712|
|Poppy 5D (NRL-PL 154, GGSE 5)||1967-053D||31.05.1967||Va SLC-2W||Thor-DM21 Agena-D||with Poppy 5A, Poppy 5B (GGSE 4), Poppy 5C, Timation 1, Calsphere 3, Calsphere 4, NRL-PL 150B, OPS 5712|
|Poppy 6A (NRL-PL 161)||1969-082D||30.09.1969||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 6B, Poppy 6C, Poppy 6D, Timation 2, Tempsat 2, SOICAL Cone, SOICAL Cylinder, Weston, NRL-PL 176|
|Poppy 6B (NRL-PL 161)||1969-082E||30.09.1969||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 6A, Poppy 6C, Poppy 6D, Timation 2, Tempsat 2, SOICAL Cone, SOICAL Cylinder, Weston, NRL-PL 176|
|Poppy 6C (NRL-PL 163)||1969-082F||30.09.1969||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 6A, Poppy 6B, Poppy 6D, Timation 2, Tempsat 2, SOICAL Cone, SOICAL Cylinder, Weston, NRL-PL 176|
|Poppy 6D (NRL-PL 164)||1969-082G||30.09.1969||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 6A, Poppy 6B, Poppy 6C, Timation 2, Tempsat 2, SOICAL Cone, SOICAL Cylinder, Weston, NRL-PL 176|
|Poppy 7A (NRL-PL 171)||1971-110A||14.12.1971||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 7B, Poppy 7C, Poppy 7D|
|Poppy 7B (NRL-PL 172)||1971-110C||14.12.1971||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 7A, Poppy 7C, Poppy 7D|
|Poppy 7C (NRL-PL 173)||1971-110D||14.12.1971||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 7A, Poppy 7B, Poppy 7D|
|Poppy 7D (NRL-PL 174)||1971-110E||14.12.1971||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 7A, Poppy 7B, Poppy 7C|