Poppy (multifaceted Version) [NRO]
Poppy was the follow-on ELINT system, which succeeded the Grab ELINT satellite system. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) proposed and developed Poppy, an electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellite system in 1962. Poppy's mission was to collect radar emissions from Soviet air and missile defense radars. The primary organizations that supported the Poppy Program included NRO, NSA, NRL, the Naval Security Group, the Air Force Security Service, the Army Security Agency and the Office of Naval Intelligence.
The Poppy Program was a component of the NRO Program C and NRL designed, developed, and operated Poppy satellites within Program C. NRO Program A provided launch support for Poppy. NSA received, analyzed, and reported findings derived from the intercepted radar signals from Poppy. The Naval Security Group, with support from Air Force Security Service and Army Security Agency, coordinated field operations and maintained and operated Poppy ground sites.
Poppy 7 had been modified to improve collection of ABM radar signals. This required equipment better able to detect the signals, more overlap in the suspected ABM frequency ranges, and upgrades to the ground system and recorders to improve quality. The satellites of the last two launches of this series added ocean surveillance to their tasks and became prototypes for the later NOSS satellites.
The Poppy Program operated from December 1962 through August 1977 using satellites of three configurations: 20 in series, a 24 in series and a multifaceted series. A total of seven Poppy satellites launches were conducted, with two satellites of the earlier Grab series having also been renamed to Poppy. Each launch consisted of up to four Poppy satellites and a number of secondary satellites. Poppy's average useful life on orbit was 34 months. At the time of the last mission, the mission live was nealy 6 years. Poppy 9 was launched on 14 December 1971 and operated until August 1977.
The third generation of Poppy satellites used an enlarged 27 in (68 cm) diameter satellite structure with a length of 81 – 86 cm. It featured a multifaceted surface covered with solar cells for increased power. The satellites used 2- or 3-axis gravity gradient stabilization and ammonia microthrusters for station keeping in order to maintain the orbital configuration of the Poppy constellation.
Some of the multifaceted Poppy satellites carried a secondary payload. Under this name these Poppy satellites were known to the public with the Poppy payload remaining secret.
The Poppy satellites were succeeded by the NOSS-1 (Parcae, White Cloud) ELINT triplets, which were dedicated to ocean surveillance.
|Type / Application:||ELINT, ocean surveillance|
|Operator:||Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy|
|Contractors:||Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)|
|Propulsion:||Ammonia cold gas microthrusters|
|Power:||Solar cells, batteries|
|Lifetime:||ca. 34 month (average)|
|Mass:||83 kg (#7B); 72 kg (#7C); 101 kg (#7D); 107 kg (#8A); 101 kg (#8B); 112 kg (#8C); 107 kg (#8D); 123 kg (#9A, 9B); 128 kg (#9C, 9D)|
|Orbit:||926 km × 941 km, 70° (#7B-7D); 909 km × 937 km, 70° (#8A-8D); 981 km × 1000 km, 70° (#9A-9D)|
|Poppy 7B (NRL-PL 152, GGSE 4)||1967-053C||31.05.1967||Va SLC-2W||Thor-DM21 Agena-D||with Poppy 7A, Poppy 7C, Poppy 7D (GGSE 5), Timation 1, Calsphere 3, Calsphere 4, NRL-PL 150B, OPS 5712|
|Poppy 7C (NRL-PL 153)||1967-053H||31.05.1967||Va SLC-2W||Thor-DM21 Agena-D||with Poppy 7A, Poppy 7B (GGSE 4), Poppy 7D (GGSE 5), Timation 1, Calsphere 3, Calsphere 4, NRL-PL 150B, OPS 5712|
|Poppy 7D (NRL-PL 154, GGSE 5)||1967-053D||31.05.1967||Va SLC-2W||Thor-DM21 Agena-D||with Poppy 7A, Poppy 7B (GGSE 4), Poppy 7C, Timation 1, Calsphere 3, Calsphere 4, NRL-PL 150B, OPS 5712|
|Poppy 8A (NRL-PL 161)||1969-082D||30.09.1969||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 8B, Poppy 8C, Poppy 8D, Timation 2, Tempsat 2, SOICAL Cone, SOICAL Cylinder, Weston, NRL-PL 176|
|Poppy 8B (NRL-PL 161)||1969-082E||30.09.1969||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 8A, Poppy 8C, Poppy 8D, Timation 2, Tempsat 2, SOICAL Cone, SOICAL Cylinder, Weston, NRL-PL 176|
|Poppy 8C (NRL-PL 163)||1969-082F||30.09.1969||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 8A, Poppy 8B, Poppy 8D, Timation 2, Tempsat 2, SOICAL Cone, SOICAL Cylinder, Weston, NRL-PL 176|
|Poppy 8D (NRL-PL 164)||1969-082G||30.09.1969||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 8A, Poppy 8B, Poppy 8C, Timation 2, Tempsat 2, SOICAL Cone, SOICAL Cylinder, Weston, NRL-PL 176|
|Poppy 9A (NRL-PL 171)||1971-110A||14.12.1971||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 9B, Poppy 9C, Poppy 9D|
|Poppy 9B (NRL-PL 172)||1971-110C||14.12.1971||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 9A, Poppy 9C, Poppy 9D|
|Poppy 9C (NRL-PL 173)||1971-110D||14.12.1971||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 9A, Poppy 9B, Poppy 9D|
|Poppy 9D (NRL-PL 174)||1971-110E||14.12.1971||Va SLC-1W||Thorad-SLV2G Agena-D||with Poppy 9A, Poppy 9B, Poppy 9C|