Please make a donation to support Gunter's Space Page.
Thank you very much for visiting Gunter's Space Page. I hope that this site is useful and informative for you.
If you appreciate the information provided on this site, please consider supporting my work by making a simple and secure donation via PayPal. Please help to run the website and keep everything free of charge. Thank you very much.

Shuttle

Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS 112) [NASA]

Space Shuttle Atlantis [NASA]

The Space Shuttle is the world's first reusable spacecraft, and the first spacecraft in history that can carry large satellites both to and from orbit. The Shuttle launches like a rocket, maneuvers in Earth orbit like a spacecraft and lands like an airplane. Each of the five Space Shuttle orbiters built -- Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour -- was designed to fly at least 100 missions.

The Orbiter is the centerpiece of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the Orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can carry up to eight crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end.

The cockpit, living quarters and experiment operator's station are located in the forward fuselage of the Orbiter vehicle. Payloads are carried in the mid-fuselage payload bay, and the Orbiter's main engines and maneuvering thrusters are located in the aft fuselage.

Forward Fuselage

The cockpit, living quarters and experiment operator's station are located in the forward fuselage. This area houses the pressurized crew module and provides support for the nose section, the nose gear and the nose gear wheel well and doors.

The 65.8-cubic-meter crew station module is a three-section pressurized working, living and stowage compartment in the forward portion of the Orbiter. It consists of the flight deck, the middeck/equipment bay and an airlock. Outside the aft bulkhead of the crew module in the payload bay, a docking module and a transfer tunnel with an adapter can be fitted to allow crew and equipment transfer for docking, Spacelab and extravehicular operations.

The two-level crew module has a forward flight deck with the commander's seat positioned on the left and the pilot's seat on the right.

Flight Deck

The flight deck is designed in the usual pilot/copilot arrangement, which permits the vehicle to be piloted from either seat and permits one-man emergency return. Each seat has manual flight controls, including rotation and translation hand controllers, rudder pedals and speed-brake controllers. The flight deck seats four. The on-orbit displays and controls are at the aft end of the flight deck/crew compartment. The displays and controls on the left are for operating the Orbiter, and those on the right are for operating and handling the payloads. More than 2,020 separate displays and controls are located on the flight deck.

Six pressure windshields, two overhead windows and two rear-viewing payload bay windows are located in the upper flight deck of the crew module, and a window is located in the crew entrance/exit hatch located in the midsection, or deck, of the crew module.

Middeck

The middeck contains provisions and stowage facilities for four crew sleep stations. Stowage for the lithium hydroxide canisters and other gear, the waste management system, the personal hygiene station and the work/dining table is also provided in the middeck.

The nominal maximum crew size is seven. The middeck can be reconfigured by adding three rescue seats in place of the modular stowage and sleeping provisions. The seating capacity will then accommodate the rescue flight crew of three and a maximum rescued crew of seven.

Airlock

The airlock provides access for spacewalks, known as extravehicular activity, or EVA. It can be located in one of several places: inside the Orbiter crew module in the middeck area mounted to the aft bulkhead, outside the cabin also mounted to the bulkhead or on top of a tunnel adapter that can connect the pressurized Spacehab module with the Orbiter cabin. A docking module can also serve as an EVA airlock.

The airlock contains two spacesuits, expendables for two six-hour payload EVAs and one contingency or emergency EVA, and mobility aids such as handrails to enable the crew to perform a variety of tasks. The airlock allows two crewmen room for changing spacesuits.

Midfuselage

In addition to forming the payload bay of the Orbiter, the midfuselage supports the payload bay doors, hinges and tiedown fittings, the forward wing glove and various Orbiter system components.

Each payload bay door supports four radiator panels. When the doors are opened, the tilting radiators are unlatched and moved to the proper position. This allows heat radiation from both sides of the panels, whereas the four aft radiator panels radiate from the upper side only.

Some payloads may not be attached directly to the Orbiter but to payload carriers that are attached to the Orbiter. The inertial upper stage, pressurized modules or any specialized cradle for holding a payload are typical carriers.

The Remote Manipulator System, or RMS, is a 15.2-meter long articulating arm remotely controlled from the flight deck of the Orbiter. The elbow and wrist movements permit payloads to be grappled for deployment out of the payload bay or retrieved and secured for return to Earth.

A television camera and lights near the outer end of the arm permit the operator to see on television monitors what his hands are doing. In addition, three floodlights are located along each side of the payload bay.

Aft Fuselage

The aft fuselage consists of the left and right orbital maneuvering systems, Space Shuttle main engines, body flap, vertical tail and Orbiter/external tank rear attachments.

The forward bulkhead closes off the aft fuselage from the midfuselage. The upper portion of the bulkhead attaches to the vertical tail. The internal thrust structure supports the three Space Shuttle main engines, low pressure turbopumps and propellant lines.

To see the crew lists of the missions, go to the mission listing.

Nation: USA
Type / Application: Manned Spacecraft
Operator: NASA
Contractors: Rockwell
Equipment:
Configuration: Winged orbiter
Propulsion: 2 × OME (AJ10-190)
Power: Fuel cells, batteries
Lifetime:
Mass:
Orbit:
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Columbia F-1 (STS-1) 1981-034A 12.04.1981 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-2 (STS-2, SIR A) 1981-111A 12.11.1981 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-3 (STS-3) 1982-022A 22.03.1982 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-4 (STS-4) 1982-065A 27.06.1982 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-5 (STS-5) 1982-110A 11.11.1982 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with SBS 3, Anik C3
Challenger F-1 (STS-6) 1983-026A 04.04.1983 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with TDRS 1
Challenger F-2 (STS-7, MSL 1) 1983-059A 18.06.1983 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Anik C2, Palapa B1, SPAS 01
Challenger F-3 (STS-8) 1983-089A 30.08.1983 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Insat 1B
Columbia F-6 (STS-9, Spacelab 1) 1983-116A 28.11.1983 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Challenger F-4 (STS-41-B) 1984-011A 03.02.1984 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Palapa B2, Westar 6, IRT, SPAS 01A
Challenger F-5 (STS-41-C) 1984-034A 06.04.1984 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with LDEF 1
Discovery F-1 (STS-41-D) 1984-093A 30.08.1984 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with SBS 4, Telstar 302, Leasat 2
Challenger F-6 (STS-41-G, SIR-B) 1984-108A 05.10.1984 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with ERBS
Discovery F-2 (STS-51-A) 1984-113A 08.11.1984 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Anik D2, Leasat 1
Discovery F-3 (STS-51-C) 1985-010A 24.01.1985 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Orion 1
Discovery F-4 (STS-51-D) 1985-028A 12.04.1985 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Anik C1, Leasat 3
Challenger F-7 (STS-51-B, Spacelab 3) 1985-034A 29.04.1985 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Nusat, GLOMR
Discovery F-5 (STS-51-G) 1985-048A 17.06.1985 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Morelos 1, Arabsat 1B, Telstar 303, Spartan-101 F1
Challenger F-8 (STS-51-F, Spacelab 2) 1985-063A 29.07.1985 CCK LC-39A P Shuttle with PDP
Discovery F-6 (STS-51-I) 1985-076A 27.08.1985 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Aussat A1, ASC 1, Leasat 4
Atlantis F-1 (STS-51-J) 1985-092A 03.10.1985 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with DSCS-3 2, DSCS-3 3
Challenger F-9 (STS-61-A, Spacelab D-1) 1985-104A 30.10.1985 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with GLOMR
Atlantis F-2 (STS-61-B) 1985-109A 27.11.1985 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Aussat A2, Morelos 2, Satcom K2, OEX-Target
Columbia F-7 (STS-61-C, MSL-2) 1986-003A 12.01.1986 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Satcom K1
Challenger F-10 (STS-51-L) 1986-F01 28.01.1986 CCK LC-39B F Shuttle with TDRS 2, Spartan-203 F1
Discovery F-7 (STS-26R) 1988-091A 29.09.1988 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with TDRS 3
Atlantis F-3 (STS-27R) 1988-106A 02.12.1988 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Onyx 1
Discovery F-8 (STS-29R) 1989-021A 13.03.1989 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with TDRS 4
Atlantis F-4 (STS-30R) 1989-033A 04.05.1989 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Magellan
Columbia F-8 (STS-28R) 1989-061A 08.08.1989 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Quasar 8, USA 41
Atlantis F-5 (STS-34) 1989-084A 18.10.1989 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Galileo
Discovery F-9 (STS-33R) 1989-090A 23.11.1989 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Orion 2
Columbia F-9 (STS-32R) 1990-002A 09.01.1990 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Leasat 5
Atlantis F-6 (STS-36) 1990-019A 28.02.1990 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Misty 1 (AFP-731)
Discovery F-10 (STS-31R) 1990-037A 24.04.1990 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with HST
Discovery F-11 (STS-41) 1990-090A 06.10.1990 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Ulysses
Atlantis F-7 (STS-38) 1990-097A 15.11.1990 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Quasar 9, Prowler 1 (?)
Columbia F-10 (STS-35, Spacelab ASTRO-1) 1990-106A 02.12.1990 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Atlantis F-8 (STS-37) 1991-027A 05.04.1991 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with CGRO
Discovery F-12 (STS-39) 1991-031A 28.04.1991 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with IBSS-SPAS, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C, USA 70
Columbia F-11 (STS-40, Spacelab SLS-1) 1991-040A 05.06.1991 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Atlantis F-9 (STS-43) 1991-054A 02.08.1991 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with TDRS 5
Discovery F-13 (STS-48) 1991-063A 12.09.1991 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with UARS
Atlantis F-10 (STS-44) 1991-080A 24.11.1991 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with DSP 16
Discovery F-14 (STS-42, Spacelab IML-1) 1992-002A 22.01.1992 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Atlantis F-11 (STS-45, Spacelab ATLAS-1) 1992-015A 24.03.1992 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Endeavour F-1 (STS-49, Intelsat Retrieval) 1992-026A 07.05.1992 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Intelsat PKM
Discovery F-12 (STS-50, Spacelab USML-1) 1992-034A 25.06.1992 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Atlantis F-12 (STS-46) 1992-049A 31.07.1992 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Eureca 1, TSS 1
Endeavour F-2 (STS-47, Spacelab J-1) 1992-061A 12.09.1992 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Columbia F-13 (STS-52) 1992-070A 22.10.1992 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with LAGEOS 2, CTA
Discovery F-15 (STS-53) 1992-086A 02.12.1992 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Quasar 10, ODERACS (A),(B),(C),(D),(E),(F)
Endeavour F-3 (STS-54) 1993-003A 13.01.1993 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with TDRS 6
Discovery F-16 (STS-56, Spacelab ATLAS-2) 1993-023A 08.04.1993 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Spartan-201 F1
Columbia F-14 (STS-55, Spacelab D-2) 1993-027A 26.04.1993 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Endeavour F-4 (STS-57, Spacehab 1) 1993-037A 21.06.1993 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Discovery F-17 (STS-51) 1993-058A 12.09.1993 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with ACTS, ORFEUS-SPAS 1
Columbia F-15 (STS-58, Spacelab SLS-2) 1993-065A 18.10.1993 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Endeavour F-5 (STS-61, HST-SM 1) 1993-075A 02.12.1993 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Discovery F-18 (STS-60, Spacehab-2) 1994-006A 03.02.1994 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with WSF 1, BremSat, ODERACS A, B, C, D, E, F
Columbia F-16 (STS-62, USMP 2) 1994-015A 04.03.1994 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Endeavour F-6 (STS-59, SRL 1) 1994-020A 09.04.1994 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-17 (STS-65, Spacelab IML-2) 1994-039A 08.07.1994 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Discovery F-19 (STS-64, LITE) 1994-059A 09.09.1994 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Spartan-201 F2
Endeavour F-7 (STS-68, SRL-2) 1994-062A 30.09.1994 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Atlantis F-13 (STS-66, Spacelab ATLAS-3) 1994-073A 03.11.1994 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with CRISTA-SPAS 1
Discovery F-20 (STS-63, Spacehab 3) 1995-004A 03.02.1995 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Spartan-204 F1, ODERACS 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F
Endeavour F-8 (STS-67, Spacelab-ASTRO 2) 1995-007A 02.03.1995 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Atlantis F-14 (STS-71, SMM-01, Spacelab M-1) 1995-030A 27.06.1995 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Discovery F-21 (STS-70) 1995-035A 13.07.1995 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with TDRS 7
Endeavour F-9 (STS-69) 1995-048A 07.09.1995 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with WSF 2, Spartan-201 F3
Columbia F-18 (STS-73, Spacelab USML-2) 1995-056A 20.10.1995 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Atlantis F-15 (STS-74, SMM-02) 1995-061A 12.11.1995 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Stikovchnoy Otsek
Endeavour F-10 (STS-72) 1996-001A 11.01.1996 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Spartan-206 F1
Columbia F-19 (STS-75, USMP 3) 1996-012A 22.02.1996 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with TSS 1R
Atlantis F16 (STS-76, SMM-03) 1996-018A 22.03.1996 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Endeavour F-11 (STS-77, Spacehab 4) 1996-032A 19.05.1996 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Spartan-207 F1 / IAE, PAMS-STU
Columbia F-20 (STS-78, Spacelab LMS-1) 1996-036A 20.06.1996 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Atlantis F-17 (STS-79, SMM-04) 1996-057A 16.09.1996 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-21 (STS-80) 1996-065A 19.11.1996 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with ORFEUS-SPAS 2, WSF 3
Atlantis F-18 (STS-81, SMM-05) 1997-001A 12.01.1997 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Discovery F-22 (STS-82, HST-SM 2) 1997-004A 11.02.1997 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-22 (STS-83, Spacelab MSL-1) 1997-013A 04.04.1997 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Atlantis F-19 (STS-84, SMM-06) 1997-023A 15.05.1997 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-23 (STS-94, Spacelab MSL-1R) 1997-032A 01.07.1997 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Discovery F-23 (STS-85, TAS 01) 1997-039A 07.08.1997 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with CRISTA-SPAS 2
Atlantis F-20 (STS-86, SMM-07) 1997-055A 26.09.1997 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-24 (STS-87, USMP 4) 1997-073A 19.11.1997 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Spartan-201 F4, AERCAM-Sprint
Endeavour F-12 (STS-89, SMM-08) 1998-003A 23.01.1998 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Columbia F-25 (STS-90, Spacelab Neurolab) 1998-022A 17.04.1998 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Discovery F-24 (STS-91, SMM-09) 1998-034A 02.06.1998 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Discovery F-25 (STS-95, Spacehab 5 / TAS 02) 1998-064A 29.10.1998 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with PANSAT, Spartan-201 F5
Endeavour F-13 (STS-88, ISS-01-2A) 1998-069A 04.12.1998 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Node 1 (Unity), PMA 1, PMA 2, SAC A, Mightysat 1
Discovery-F26 (STS-96, ISS-02-2A.1) 1999-030A 27.05.1999 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with Starshine 1
Columbia F-26 (STS-93) 1999-040A 23.07.1999 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with AXAF-I (CXO)
Discovery F27 (STS-103, HST-SM 3A) 1999-069A 20.12.1999 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Endeavour F-14 (STS-99, SRTM) 2000-010A 11.02.2000 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Atlantis F-21 (STS-101, ISS-03-2A.2A) 2000-027A 19.05.2000 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Atlantis F-22 (STS-106, ISS-04-2A.2B) 2000-053A 08.09.2000 CCK LC-39B Shuttle
Discovery F-28 (STS-92, ISS-05-3A) 2000-062A 11.10.2000 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with ITS-Z1, PMA-3
Endeavour F-15 (STS-97, ISS-06-4A) 2000-078A 01.12.2000 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with ITS-P6
Atlantis F-23 (STS-98, ISS-07-5A) 2001-006A 07.02.2001 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Lab (Destiny)
Discovery F-29 (STS-102, ISS-08-5A.1) 2001-010A 08.03.2001 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with MPLM 1-01
Endeavour F-16 (STS-100, ISS-09-6A) 2001-016A 19.04.2001 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with MPLM 2-01
Discovery F-29 (STS-104, ISS-10-7A) 2001-028A 12.07.2001 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with JAM (Quest)
Discovery F-30 (STS-105, ISS-11-7A.1) 2001-035A 10.08.2001 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with MPLM 1-02, Simplesat
Endeavour F-17 (STS-108, ISS-12-UF1) 2001-054A 05.12.2001 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with MPLM 2-02, Starshine 2
Columbia F-27 (STS-109, HST-SM 3B) 2002-010A 01.03.2002 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Atlantis F-25 (STS-110, ISS-13-8A) 2002-018A 08.04.2002 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with ITS-S0
Endeavour F-18 (STS-111, ISS-14-UF2) 2002-028A 05.06.2002 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with MPLM 1-03
Atlantis F-26 (STS-112, ISS-15-9A) 2002-047A 07.10.2002 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with ITS-S1
Endeavour F-19 (STS-113, ISS-16-11A) 2002-052A 24.11.2002 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with ITS-P1, MEPSI 1A, MEPSI 1B
Columbia F-28 (STS-107, Spacehab-RDM 1) 2003-003A 16.01.2003 CCK LC-39A P Shuttle
Discovery F-31 (STS-114, ISS-17-ULF1) 2005-026A 26.07.2005 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with MPLM 2-03
Discovery F-32 (STS-121, ISS-18-ULF1.1) 2006-028A 04.07.2006 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with MPLM 1-04
Atlantis F-27 (STS-115, ISS-19-12A) 2006-036A 09.09.2006 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with ITS-P3/4
Discovery F-33 (STS-116, ISS-20-12A.1) 2006-055A 10.12.2006 CCK LC-39B Shuttle with ITS-P5, MAA, FCal, MEPSI 2A, MEPSI 2B, RAFT1, MARScom
Atlantis F-28 (STS-117, ISS-21-13A) 2007-024A 08.06.2007 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with ITS-S3/4
Endeavour F-20 (STS-118, ISS-22-13A.1) 2007-035A 08.08.2007 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with ITS-S5
Discovery F-34 (STS-120, ISS-23-10A) 2007-050A 23.10.2007 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Node 2 (Harmony)
Atlantis F-29 (STS-122, ISS-24-1E) 2008-005A 07.02.2008 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with COF (Columbus)
Endeavour F-21 (STS-123, ISS-25-1J/A) 2008-009A 11.03.2008 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with JLP (JEM-ELM-PS)
Discovery F-35 (STS-124, ISS-26-1J) 2008-027A 31.05.2008 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with JPM (JEM-PM, Kibo)
Endeavour F-22 (STS-126, ISS-28-ULF-2) 2008-059A 15.11.2008 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with MPLM 1-05, PSSC-Testbed 1
Discovery F-36 (STS-119, ISS-27-15A) 2009-012A 15.03.2009 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with ITS-S6
Atlantis F-30 (STS-125, HST-SM 4) 2009-025A 11.05.2009 CCK LC-39A Shuttle
Endeavour F-23 (STS-127, ISS-29-2J/A) 2009-038A 15.07.2009 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with JEF (JEM-EF), JLE (JEM-ELM-ES), SEDA-AP, MAXI, ICS, ANDE-2 AA, ANDE-2 PA, Bevo 1, AggieSat2
Discovery F-37 (STS-128, ISS-30-17A) 2009-045A 29.08.2009 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with MPLM 1-06
Atlantis F-31 (STS-129, ISS-31-ULF-3) 2009-062A 16.11.2009 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with ELC 1, ELC 2
Endeavour F-24 (STS-130, ISS-32-20A/14A) 2010-004A 08.02.2010 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with Node 3 (Tranquility), Cupola
Discovery F-38 (STS-131, ISS-33-19A) 2010-012A 05.04.2010 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with MPLM 1-07
Atlantis F-32 (STS-132, ISS-34-ULF-4) 2010-019A 14.05.2010 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with MRM 1 (Rassvet)
Discovery F-39 (STS-133, ISS-35-ULF-5) 2011-008A 24.02.2011 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with PMM, ELC 4
Endeavour F-25 (STS-134, ISS-36-ULF-6) 2011-020A 16.05.2011 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with AMS 02, ELC 3, STP-H3
Atlantis F-33 (STS-135, ISS-37-ULF-7) 2011-031A 08.07.2011 CCK LC-39A Shuttle with MPLM 2-04, PSSC-Testbed 2