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The LOFTI (Low Frequency Trans Ionospheric Satellite) satellites were produced as a cooperative effort with the Radio Division.

Launched in 1961 and 1962, LOFTI attempted to determine whether very low frequency (VLF) energy could penetrate through the ionosphere and be received by submerged submarines. The satellites demonstrated that under many ionospheric conditions VLF signals were extremely attenuated and could not be detected, making them unreliable for submarine communication.

Nation: USA
Type / Application: Research
Operator: Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) / US Navy
Contractors: Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)
Configuration: NRL 20in sphere
Propulsion: None
Power: Solar cells, batteries
Lifetime: 32 days
Orbit: 169 km × 833 km, 69.86
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
LOFTI 2A 1963-021B 15.06.1963 Va 75-1-1 P Thor-DM21 Agena-D with Poppy 2A (Solrad 6), Poppy 2B, Poppy 2C (RADOSE), Surcal 3, Wild Bill 4
Further LOFTI missions:

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