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Chandrayaan 2 / Vikram

Chandrayaan 2 [ISRO] (launch configuration)

Chandrayaan-2 is an Indian mission to the Moon, which will have an Orbiter, a Lander and a Rover. After reaching the 100 km lunar orbit, the Lander housing the Rover will separate from the Orbiter. After a controlled descent, the Lander will soft land on the lunar surface at a specified site and deploy a Rover.

The science goals of the mission are to further improve the understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon using instruments onboard Orbiter and in-situ analysis of lunar samples using Lander and Rover.

Chandrayaan-2 will be launched on Indiaís GSLV-MkIIA in 2018, delayed from the original 2014 timeframe. In 2018, it was moved to a GSLV Mk.3 (2) rocket due to mass gains and further delayed to 2019. Lift off mass has gone up from 3250 kg to 3850kg. The lander weight went up from 1250 kg to about 1350 kg and the six-wheeled roverís weight from 20 kg to 25 kg.

Orbiter Craft (OC)

Chandrayaan-2 Structure configuration has been changed from I2K to I3K configuration due to the revision of payload lift off capacity by GSLV. This change will enable accommodating larger propellant tanks. The mission strategy was revised to inject the satellite in a lower initial orbit (170 × 16980 km) with a higher lift-off mass of 3200 kg and the Propulsion System Configuration changed to increase fuel carrying capability of the satellite. The other activities completed are: finalisation of all electrical and mechanical interfaces including the payload interfaces; Preliminary Design Reviews (PDRs) of Bus Systems (Power, Attitude Orbit Control Electronics, Telemetry, Tracking and Command Baseband Systems, RF Systems, Data Handling System, Structure, Thermal Control System, Propulsion System); all systems accommodation studies and initial thermal analysis.

The following five payloads are selected for Orbiter.

  • Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) and Solar X-ray Monitor (XSM) for mapping the major elements present on the lunar surface.
  • L- and S-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for probing the first few tens of meters of lunar surface for the presence of different constituents including water ice. SAR is expected to provide further evidence confirming the presence of water ice below the shadowed regions of the moon.
  • Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) for mapping of lunar surface over a wide wavelength range for the study of minerals, water molecules and hydroxyl present.
  • Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE-2) to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere.
  • Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) for preparing a three-dimensional map essential for studying the lunar mineralogy and geology.

Lander Craft (LC) (Vikram)

The lander carries following instruments:

  • Seismometer for studying Moon-quakes near the landing site
  • Thermal probe for estimating the thermal properties of the lunar surface
  • Langmuir probe for measuring the density and variation of lunar surface plasma
  • Radio occultation experiment for measuring the total electron content


Following two scientific payloads selected for Indian Rover would carry out elemental analysis of the lunar surface near the landing site.

  • Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS).
  • Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Spectroscope (APIXS).
Nation: India
Type / Application: Lunar orbiter
Operator: ISRO
Contractors: ISRO
Equipment: see above
Configuration: I-3K (I-3000) Bus
Propulsion: ?
Power: Deployable solar array, batteries (orbiter); solar cells, batteries (lander); solar cells, batteries (rover)
Mass: 3850 kg (launch); 1350 kg (lander + rover); 25 kg (rover)
Orbit: 100 km Lunar orbit
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Chandrayaan 2 - 2019 Sr SLP GSLV Mk.3 (2) with Chandrayaan 2 Lander
Chandrayaan 2 Lander (Vikram) - 2019 Sr SLP GSLV Mk.3 (2) with Chandrayaan 2


  • ISRO Website
Further Chandrayaan missions: