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Zond (L1E)

Kosmos 382 (L1E)

The two L1E satellites were test missions for the L1 and Blok-D systems for lunar missions in high elliptical earth orbit.

The payload stack consisted of a reduced L1 type spacecraft attached to a heavily instrumented Blok-D upper stage. The L1 spacecraft did not have a heat shield for reentry and remained intentionally attached to the upper stage. The Blok-D stage was fitted with cameras in the tanks to monitor the fuel and oxidizer behaviour in weightlessness and during acceleration.

The first L1E mission did not reach orbit due to a failure of the Proton launch vehicle.

The second one was successfully orbited and named Kosmos 382. Over the course of 5 days, the Blok-D was ignited three times to raise the initial ~190 km × ~300 km × 51.6 orbit to a final 2577 km × 5082 km × 55.87 orbit to simulate the lunar orbit insertion burn, the lunar orbit circularization burn and the descent burn to bring the LK lunar lander just over the surface.

Nation: USSR
Type / Application: Technology
Configuration: 7K-L1E with Blok-D
Propulsion: KTDU-53
Power: Batteries
Lifetime: 5 days ?
Orbit: 2577 km × 5082 km, 55.87 (final)
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Kosmos (313) (L1E 1) 1969-F14 28.11.1969 Ba LC-81/23 F Proton-K Blok-D
Kosmos 382 (L1E 2K) 1970-103A 02.12.1970 Ba LC-81/23 Proton-K Blok-D


  • Phillip S. Clark: "Obscure unmanned Soviet satellite missions", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, September 1993; p 371-380.