Please make a donation to support Gunter's Space Page.
Thank you very much for visiting Gunter's Space Page. I hope that this site is useful and informative for you.
If you appreciate the information provided on this site, please consider supporting my work by making a simple and secure donation via PayPal. Please help to run the website and keep everything free of charge. Thank you very much.

MAK 1, 2, 3

The MAK satellites were a series of soviet small satellites developed at NIIPME (Prikladnoy Mekhaniki I Elektrodinamiki NII) at Moscow's MAI.

The non-oriented satellites with a maximum weight of 25 kg consisted of a common bus module with different instrument packages. They were deployed from the space station Mir's airlock. Due to the low orbital altitude, the designed lifetime was less than one month.

MAK 1 was a 16 kg satellite to study the upper atmosphere and ionosphere on a 3 day mission. It was to test the electrical, telemetry and temperature regulation systems of the new satellite bus and to operate the Fokus payload, to study electrons and plasmas of the upper atmosphere. MAK 1 was deployed from Mir on 17 June 1991. Due to a power failure, it failed to deploy an antenna and remained non operational.

MAK 2 was also a mission to measure the characteristics of the upper atmosphere. It had a mass of 16.5 kg.

The third satellite in the series, MAK 3, which was also to do research on the upper atmosphere, was never flown. It is unclear, if it was ever built.

Nation: Russia
Type / Application: Science
Contractors: NIIPME
Equipment: NIIPME
Propulsion: None
Power: Solar cells, batteries
Lifetime: < 1 month
Mass: 16 kg
Orbit: ~390 km × ~390 km, 51.5 (#1); 389 km × 393 km, 51.6 (#2)
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
MAK 1 1986-017DV 30.05.1991 Ba LC-1/5 Soyuz-U2 with Progress-M 8, Naduvaniy gazovoy ballon
MAK 2 1986-017GX 27.10.1992 Ba LC-31/6 Soyuz-U2 with Progress-M 15 & Znamya 2
MAK 3 - cancelled Ba Soyuz-U2 with Progress-M xx


  • David M. Harland: The Story of Space Station Mir, p. 364-365
  • F.-B. Hsiao: Microsatellites as Research Tools, p. 30