Tundra (?) [TsNII Kometa]
The Tundra, Kupol or EKS (Edinaya Kosmicheskaya Sistema) series of satellites is the next generation of Russian early warning satellites to replace the US-K and US-KMO early warning satellites of the Oko-1 system. The new early warning system is called Kupol.
The development of the EKS started in 2000. The Russian Ministry of Defence awarded in 2007 a contract for the EKS system to RKK Energiya with a first test launch planned in 2009. Several problems, changing requirements and a court case led to long delays, postponing the first mission to the end of 2014.
Reportedly the Tundra satellites carry also a secure emergency communications payload to be used in case of a nuclear war.
They are launched on Soyuz-2-1b Fregat boosters into Molniya-orbits, inclined highly elliptical 12 h orbits. A geostationary version is also planned.
The first Tundra satellite was launched in the last quarter of 2015 on a Soyuz-2-1b Fregat booster. Until 2020, six satellites were planned to be orbited. At then end of 2020, four were on orbit.
|Type / Application:||Early warning, communication|
|Contractors:||TsNII Kometa (prime); RKK Energiya (bus)|
|Power:||Deployable solar arrays, batteries|
|Orbit:||1626 km × 38552 km, 63.37° (#1)|
|Kosmos 2510 (Tundra 11L, Kupol 11L, EKS #1)||2015-066A||17.11.2015||Pl LC-43/4||Soyuz-2-1b Fregat|
|Kosmos 2518 (Tundra 12L, Kupol 12L, EKS #2)||2017-027A||25.05.2017||Pl LC-43/4||Soyuz-2-1b Fregat|
|Kosmos 2541 (Tundra 13L, Kupol 13L, EKS #3)||2019-065A||26.09.2019||Pl LC-43/4||Soyuz-2-1b Fregat|
|Kosmos 2546 (Tundra 14L, Kupol 14L, EKS #4)||2020-031A||22.05.2020||Pl LC-43/4||Soyuz-2-1b Fregat|
|Kosmos 2552 (Tundra 15L, Kupol 15L, EKS #5)||2021-113A||25.11.2021||Pl LC-43/4||Soyuz-2-1b Fregat|
|Kosmos 2563 (Tundra 16L, Kupol 16L, EKS #6)||2022-145A||02.11.2022||Pl LC-43/4||Soyuz-2-1b Fregat|