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Foton (34KS)

Foton

Foton 11 with Mirka capsule [Kayser-Threde]

Foton was a series of Soviet and later Russian material sciences research satellites.

The Foton program used initially a modification of the Bion satellite, which was derived from the Vostok/Zenit design. These satellites, consisting of a spherical return capsule, a service module and a battery module, offered the opportunity for dedicated microgravity research missions of up to 16 days duration.

Foton spacecraft had flown with the Zona-1, Zona-4, Zona-4M, Splav-2, and Konstanta-2 electric furnaces as well as the Kashtan electrophoresis unit. Also other payloads were flown, among them biological experiments.

The 11th mission was unusual, as the battery module was replaced by the German Mirka reentry capsule experiment.

Twelve missions were flown, all launched by Soyuz-U boosters from the Plesetsk cosmodrome.

The Foton series was replaced by the improved Foton-M satellites.

Nation: USSR / Russia
Type / Application: Micro-gravity
Operator:
Contractors: TsSKB → TsSKB-Progress
Equipment:
Configuration:
Propulsion: 11D82M
Power: Batteries
Lifetime: 13-16 days
Mass: 6200 kg
Orbit:
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Kosmos 1645 (Foton #1) 1985-029A 16.04.1985 Pl LC-41/1 Soyuz-U
Kosmos 1744 (Foton #2) 1986-036A 21.05.1986 Pl LC-41/1 Soyuz-U
Kosmos 1841 (Foton #3) 1987-037A 24.04.1987 Pl LC-41/1 Soyuz-U
Foton 1 (Foton #4) 1988-031A 14.04.1988 Pl LC-41/1 Soyuz-U
Foton 2 (Foton #5) 1989-032A 26.04.1989 Pl LC-41/1 Soyuz-U
Foton 3 (Foton #6) 1990-032A 11.04.1990 Pl LC-43/3 Soyuz-U
Foton 4 (Foton #7) 1991-070A 04.10.1991 Pl LC-43/4 Soyuz-U
Foton 5 (Foton #8) 1992-065A 08.10.1992 Pl LC-43/4 Soyuz-U
Foton 6 (Foton #9) 1994-033A 14.06.1994 Pl LC-43/3 Soyuz-U
Foton 7 (Foton #10) 1995-006A 16.02.1995 Pl LC-43/4 Soyuz-U
Foton 8 (Foton #11) 1997-060A 09.10.1997 Pl LC-43/3 Soyuz-U with Mirka
Foton 9 (Foton #12) 1999-048A 09.09.1999 Pl LC-43/3 Soyuz-U