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Ekran (11F647)

Ekran

The Ekran system (a.k.a. Stationar-T) was the Soviet Union's first operational geosynchronous satellite and the worlds first direct-to-home TV service. It provided colour television broadcast to Siberia and the Far North.

After discarding early exotic concepts of nuclear powered satellites requiring a Fluorine/Amine upper stage, the Ekran concept settled to a more conventional spacecraft. The KAUR-3 bus, which was introduced with the Raduga spacecraft, became the standard for soviet geosynchronous communications satellites. It was 3-axis stabilized using liquid propellant micro-engines and had a pointin accuracy of within 0.25 degrees of the earth's centre. The single-unit body was equipped with solar panels, and active liquid-gas phase-change thermoregulation system, and a corrective engine unit for making orbital adjustments. 25 square meters of solar panels provided 1280 W of power.

Ekran featured a 12 square meter phased array antenna, operating at 702-726 MHz at 200 W power.

The first flights used experimental satellites, but they already allowed 18 to 20 million additional Soviet citizens to see the Central Television program. Operations were delayed due to continuing problems with the Proton launch vehicle, which caused the loss sof several Ekran satellites.

In 1980 the system was accepted for operational service. The satellite broadcast 12 to 16 hours of television programming daily. By 1982 3000 receivers were in operation.

Nation: USSR / Russia
Type / Application: Communication, direct broadcasting
Operator:
Contractors: NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM)
Equipment: 1 (+1) UHF 200 W transponder, C-band uplink
Configuration: KAUR-3
Propulsion:
Power: 2 deployable solar arrays, batteries
Lifetime: 3 years
Mass: 1970 kg
Orbit: GEO
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Ekran 1 (Ekran 11L) 1976-107A 26.10.1976 Ba LC-81/24 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 2 (Ekran 12L) 1977-092A 20.09.1977 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran (3a) (Ekran 13L) 1978-F02 27.05.1978 Ba LC-200/40 F Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran (3b) (Ekran 15L) 1978-F03 17.08.1978 Ba LC-200/40 F Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran (3c) (Ekran 14L) 1978-F04 17.10.1978 Ba LC-200/40 F Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 3 (Ekran 16L) 1979-015A 21.02.1979 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 4 (Ekran 17L) 1979-087A 03.10.1979 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 5 (Ekran 19L) 1980-060A 14.07.1980 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 6 (Ekran 20L) 1980-104A 26.12.1980 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 7 (Ekran 21L) 1981-061A 25.06.1981 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 8 (Ekran 22L) 1982-009A 05.02.1982 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran (9a) (Ekran 23L) 1982-F04 22.07.1982 Ba LC-200/40 F Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 9 (Ekran 24L) 1982-093A 16.09.1982 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 10 (Ekran 18L) 1983-016A 12.03.1983 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 11 (Ekran 25L) 1983-100A 29.09.1983 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 12 (Ekran 26L) 1984-028A 16.03.1984 Ba LC-200/39 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 13 (Ekran 27L) 1984-090A 24.08.1984 Ba LC-200/39 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 14 (Ekran 28L) 1985-024A 22.03.1985 Ba LC-200/40 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 15 (Ekran 30L) 1986-038A 24.05.1986 Ba LC-200/39 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 16 (Ekran 29L) 1987-073A 03.09.1987 Ba LC-200/39 Proton-K Blok-DM
Ekran 17 (Ekran 31L) 1988-036A 06.05.1988 Ba LC-200/39 Proton-K Blok-DM
Further Ekran missions: