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In 1973 the VPK initiated the BOR (Bespilotniye Orbitalniye Raketoplan) program to investigate the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of lifting-body and heat shield materials for the manned Spiral lifting body spacecraft.

1:3 and 1:2 subscale models of the Spiral were built, which had, unlike the full-scale model, fixed wings and were designated BOR (unpiloted orbital rocketplane). BOR-1, BOR-2, and BOR-3 were increasingly sophisticated models of the configuration, flown on suborbital trajectories.

The vehicle was launched on K63D boosters from the Vladimirovska Poligon south of Kapustin Yar.

Nation: USSR
Type / Application: Spacecraft technology
Contractors: Molniya
Configuration: Lifting body with folding wings
Power: Batteries
Orbit: Suborbital
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
BOR-1 N/A 15.07.1969 Vla * K63D

* = suborbital

Further BOR missions: