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Tsikada (11F643)


Tsikada (11F643) was a Soviet civilian satellite navigation system used by the Soviet Merchant Marine and Academy of Sciences, but also by the military. It was an equivalent to the purely military Parus system.

The Tsikada satellites were very similar to the Parus satellites and also used a NPO PM built pressurized cylindrical bus with gravity-gradient stabilization. The satellites transmitted Doppler-shifted VHF transmissions at around 150 MHz and 400 MHz of their position and orbital characteristics. They operated from a 1000 km orbit with 82.9 inclination. Satellites were placed in planes spaced 45 apart.

The development of Tsikada began in 1974 and the first satellite was launched in 1976. The system entered the operational phase in 1978.

21 satellites were launched with one failure to reach orbit, all on Kosmos-3M boosters. All except one received Kosmos designations. A single modified satellite was launched as the last of the series to test the Kurs marine traffic location and control system.

Two satellites in this series carried additionally to the navigation payload each two amateur radio payloads: Kosmos 1861 (Tsikada #16) featured the RS 10 and RS 11 payloads and Kosmos 2123 (Tsikada #17) crried the RS 12 and RS 13 payloads.

Also operated in the Tsikada system were the Nadezhda and Nadezhda-M satellites, which featured an additional search and rescue system for locating vessels and aircraft in distress.

Beginning in the 1990ies, the Tsikada system was gradually superseded by the Uragan (GLONASS) system.

Nation: USSR / Russia
Type / Application: Navigation
Contractors: NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM)
Configuration: KAUR-1
Power: Solar cells, batteries
Lifetime: 1.5 to 2 years
Mass: 820 kg
Orbit: typical 950 km × 1005 km, 82.9
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Kosmos 883 (Tsikada #1) 1976-122A 15.12.1976 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 926 (Tsikada #2) 1977-062A 08.07.1977 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos (964) (Tsikada #3) 1977-F06 29.11.1977 Pl LC-132/1 F Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1000 (Tsikada #4) 1978-034A 31.03.1978 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1092 (Tsikada #5) 1979-030A 11.04.1979 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1168 (Tsikada #6) 1980-022A 17.03.1980 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1226 (Tsikada #7) 1980-099A 10.12.1980 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1304 (Tsikada #8) 1981-087A 04.09.1981 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1339 (Tsikada #9) 1982-012A 17.02.1982 Pl LC-132/2 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1506 (Tsikada #10) 1983-108A 26.10.1983 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1553 (Tsikada #11) 1984-046A 17.05.1984 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1655 (Tsikada #12) 1985-041A 30.05.1985 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1727 (Tsikada #13) 1986-008A 23.01.1986 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1791 (Tsikada #14) 1986-086A 13.11.1986 Pl LC-132/2 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1816 (Tsikada #15) 1987-009A 29.01.1987 Pl LC-132/2 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 1861 (Tsikada #16) & RS 10 & RS 11 1987-054A 23.06.1987 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 2123 (Tsikada #17) & RS 12 & RS 13 1991-007A 05.02.1991 Pl LC-133/3 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 2181 (Tsikada #18) 1992-012A 09.03.1992 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Kosmos 2230 (Tsikada #19) 1993-001A 12.01.1993 Pl LC-133/3 Kosmos-3M
Tsikada 1 (Tsikada #20) 1995-002A 24.01.1995 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M with Faisat 1, Astrid 1
Kosmos 2315 (Tsikada #21) 1995-032A 05.07.1995 Pl LC-132/1 Kosmos-3M
Further Tsikada / Nadezhda missions:

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