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Tianwen 1 / Zhurong (Huoxing 1, HX 1)

Tianwen 1 cruise configuration [Xinhua]

Tianwen 1 Orbiter [Xinhua]

Tianwen 1 lander [Xinhua]

Tianwen 1 rover (Zhurong) [Xinhua]

Tianwen 1 is the first Chinese Mars probe (formerly known as Huoxing 1 or HX 1), consisting of an orbiter and a lander with rover.

The science goals include studying the Martian topography, soil, environment, atmosphere and water ice, as well as the planet's internal structure and search for possible signs of life.

The Tianwen-1 mission consists of two parts: an orbiter and a lander, which carries a rover.

The orbiter carries a complement of 6 instruments:

  • Medium Resolution Camera (MRC) with a resolution of 100 m from a 400 km orbit
  • High Resolution Camera (HRC) with a resolution of 2 m from a 400 km orbit
  • Mars Magnetometer (MM)
  • Mars Mineral Spectrometer (MMS), to determine elementary composition
  • Orbiter Subsurface Radar (OSR)
  • Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA)

The rover, named Zhurong, carries a complement of 6 instruments:

  • Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR), to image about 100 metres below the Martian surface
  • Mars Surface Magnetic Field Detector (MSMFD)
  • Mars Meteorological Measurement Instrument (MMMI)
  • Mars Surface Compound Detector (MSCD)
  • Multi-Spectrum Camera (MSC)
  • Navigation and Topography Camera (NTC)

The launch vehicle was a CZ-5 rocket from the new Wenchang spaceport on the island province of Hainan in summer 2020.

Tianwen deployed two tiny camera subsatellites (Tianwen-1 Deployable Camera, TDC) to take images of the orbiter. One was deployed in September 2020 during the cruise phase to Mars. The second was deployed in December 2021 in Mars orbit.

Nation: China
Type / Application: Mars orbiter and rover
Operator: CNSA
Power: Solar cells, batteries (cruise stage); Solar cells, batteries (rover)
Orbit: Heliocentric
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Tianwen 1 (ex Huoxing 1, HX 1) 2020-049A 23.07.2020 We LC-101 CZ-5

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