Orion MPCV (Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle) is planned crewed spacecraft for missions to the moon, asteroids and eventually to Mars.
MPCV ia a capsule design, which inherits its shape from the Apollo capsule, but is otherwise a completly new construction. It was to launched on a Ares-1 launcher derived from Space Shuttle technology. In contrast to Apollo, landing will be on land, assisted by air-bags or retro-rockets.
After the Constellation was cancelled, the Orion CEV capsule was renamed Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). It will serve as a vehicle for lunar and interplanetary missions. The LEO missions to ISS will instead be flown on commercial vehicles.
In late 2012 ESA joined the project and will provide a service module for Orion based on the ATV service module. The OME main engine for the first three missions are Aerojet AJ10-190 (OMS) engines left over from the Shuttle. Later missions will feature a different engine, possibly with green propellants.
The first Orion MPCV capsule, the uncrewed EM-1 mission, will be launched in 2020 on a SLS (Block 1) rocket. In March 2019 NASA announced, that they are considering launching the EM-1 missions on two commercial launch vehicles (Falcon-Heavy (Block 5)) instead, with one launcher orbiting the Orion capsule and the other the transfer stage.
The second will follow in 2022 on a SLS (Block 1) iCPS rocket on a mission to lunar orbit, carrying four astronauts.
In September 2019, NASA commited in ordering 6 Orion capsules at minimum with an option of six more. The first three were oredered directly, three more will be ordered in 2022.
Later, Orion MPCV will perform lunar and interplanetary missions using the improved SLS (Block 1B) EUS launch vehicle.
|Type / Application:||Crewed spacecraft|
|Contractors:||Lockheed Martin (prime, capsule); EADS Astrium → Airbus Defence and Space (service module)|
|Propulsion:||OME (AJ10-190), 8 × R-4D-11-300|
|Power:||4 deployable solar arrays, batteries|
|Mass:||25848 kg (total); 10387 kg (capsule); 15461 kg (service modulke)|
|Orion Artemis-1 (EM-1)||-||2021||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block 1) iCPS||with BioSentinel, CuSP, LunaH-Map, Lunar-Flashlight, Lunar-IceCube, NEA-Scout, LunIR, EQUULEUS, OMOTENASHI, ArgoMoon, Cislunar Explorer A, Cislunar Explorer B, CU-E3, Miles|
|Orion Artemis-2 (EM-2)||-||2023||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block 1) iCPS|
|Orion Artemis-3||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-4||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-5||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-6||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-7||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-8||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-9||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-10||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-11||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-12||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-13||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|
|Orion Artemis-14||-||20xx||CCK LC-39B||SLS (Block-1B) EUS|