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GPS Navigation System

The Global Positioning System (GPS), is an intermediate circular orbit (ICO) satellite navigation system used for determining one's precise location and providing a highly accurate time reference almost anywhere on Earth. The satellites in the GPS constellation are called NAVSTAR (Navigation System using Timing And ranging).

The system consists of a "constellation" of at least 24 satellites in 6 orbital planes. Each satellite circles the Earth twice every day at an altitude of 20,200 kilometers. The satellites carry atomic clocks and constantly broadcast the precise time according to their own clock, along with administrative information including the orbital elements of their own motion, as determined by a set of ground-based observatories.

There are two frequencies in use: 1575.42 MHz (referred to as L1), and 1227.60 MHz (L2). The L1 signal carries a publicly usable coarse-acquisition (C/A) code as well as an encrypted P(Y) code. The L2 signal usually carries only the P(Y) code. The keys required to directly use the P(Y) code are tightly controlled by the U.S. government and are generally provided only for military use.

The GPS system included following generations of GPS satellites:

Series Generation Number Launched Lifetime Mass (Launch) Manufacturer Launch Vehicles Remarks
NTS 2 Prototype 1 1977 431 kg Naval Research Laboratory Atlas-E/F SGS-1
GPS (Navstar) 1. 11 1978 - 1985 759 kg Rockwell Atlas-E/F SGS-1
Atlas-E/F SGS-2
GPS-2 (Navstar-2) 2. 9 1989 - 1990 1660 kg Rockwell Delta-6925
GPS-2A (Navstar-2A) 2. 19 1990 - 1997 1816 kg Rockwell Delta-7925
GPS-2R (Navstar-2R) 2. 13 1997 - 2004 2032 kg Lockheed Martin Delta-7925
GPS-2RM (Navstar-2RM) 2. 8 2005 - 2008 2032 kg Lockheed Martin Delta-7925
GPS-2F (Navstar-2F) 2. 12 2010 - 2014 15 1545 kg Boeing Atlas-5(401)
Delta-4M+(4,2)
Direct orbit insertion
GPS-3 (Navstar-3) 3. 10 planned 2018 4400 kg Lockheed Martin Atlas-5(411)
Delta-4M+(4,2) (upg.)
Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)
GPS-3F (Navstar-3F) 3. 22 planned 2026 ? kg Lockheed Martin
Satellite Date LS   Launcher Remarks:
NTS 2 (P76-4) 23.06.1977 Va SLC-3W Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 1 (GPS SVN 1, Navstar 1, OPS 5111) 22.02.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 2 (GPS SVN 2, Navstar 2, OPS 5112) 13.05.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 3 (GPS SVN 3, Navstar 3, OPS 5113) 07.10.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 4 (GPS SVN 4, Navstar 4, OPS 5114) 11.12.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 5 (GPS SVN 5, Navstar 5, OPS 5117) 09.02.1980 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 6 (GPS SVN 6, Navstar 6, OPS 5118) 26.04.1980 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 7 (GPS SVN 7, Navstar 7) 19.12.1981 Va SLC-3E F Atlas-E SGS-1
GPS 8 (GPS SVN 8, Navstar 8, OPS 9794) 14.07.1983 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2
GPS 9 (GPS SVN 9, Navstar 9, USA 1) 13.06.1984 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2
GPS 10 (GPS SVN 10, Navstar 10, USA 5) 08.09.1984 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2
GPS 11 (GPS SVN 11, Navstar 11, USA 10) 08.10.1985 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2
GPS-2 0 (GPS SVN 12, Navstar 12) not launched
GPS-2 1 (GPS SVN 14, Navstar 13, USA 35) 14.02.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 2 (GPS SVN 13, Navstar 14, USA 38) 10.06.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 3 (GPS SVN 16, Navstar 15, USA 42) 18.08.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 4 (GPS SVN 19, Navstar 16, USA 47) 21.10.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 5 (GPS SVN 17, Navstar 17, USA 49) 11.12.1989 CC LC-17B Delta-6925
GPS-2 6 (GPS SVN 18, Navstar 18, USA 50) 24.01.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 7 (GPS SVN 20, Navstar 19, USA 54) 25.03.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 8 (GPS SVN 21, Navstar 20, USA 63) 02.08.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 9 (GPS SVN 15, Navstar 21, USA 64) 01.10.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2A 1 (GPS SVN 23, Navstar 22, USA 66) 26.11.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 2 (GPS SVN 24, Navstar 23, USA 71) 04.07.1991 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with Losat X
GPS-2A 3 (GPS SVN 25, Navstar 24, USA 79) 23.02.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 4 (GPS SVN 28, Navstar 25, USA 80) 10.04.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 5 (GPS SVN 26, Navstar 26, USA 83) 07.07.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 6 (GPS SVN 27, Navstar 27, USA 84) 09.09.1992 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 7 (GPS SVN 32, Navstar 28, USA 85) 22.11.1992 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 8 (GPS SVN 29, Navstar 29, USA 87) 18.12.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 9 (GPS SVN 22, Navstar 30, USA 88) 02.02.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 10 (GPS SVN 31, Navstar 31, USA 90) 29.03.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with SEDS 1
GPS-2A 11 (GPS SVN 37, Navstar 32, USA 91) 14.05.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 12 (GPS SVN 39, Navstar 33, USA 92) 26.06.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with PMG
GPS-2A 13 (GPS SVN 35, Navstar 34, USA 94) 30.08.1993 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 14 (GPS SVN 34, Navstar 35, USA 96) 26.10.1993 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 15 (GPS SVN 36, Navstar 36, USA 100) 10.03.1994 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with SEDS 2
GPS-2A 16 (GPS SVN 33, Navstar 37, USA 117) 28.03.1996 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 17 (GPS SVN 40, Navstar 38, USA 126) 16.07.1996 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 18 (GPS SVN 30, Navstar 39, USA 128) 12.09.1996 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 1 (GPS SVN 42, Navstar 42) 16.01.1997 CC LC-17A F Delta-7925
GPS-2R 2 (GPS SVN 43, Navstar 43, USA 132) 23.07.1997 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 19 (GPS SVN 38, Navstar 44, USA 135) 06.11.1997 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 3 (GPS SVN 46, Navstar 46, USA 145) 07.10.1999 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 4 (GPS SVN 51, Navstar 47, USA 150) 11.05.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 5 (GPS SVN 44, Navstar 48, USA 151) 16.07.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 6 (GPS SVN 41, Navstar 49, USA 154) 10.11.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 7 (GPS SVN 54, Navstar 50, USA 156) 30.01.2001 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 8 (GPS SVN 56, Navstar 51, USA 166) 29.01.2003 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925 with XSS 10
GPS-2R 9 (GPS SVN 45, Navstar 52, USA 168) 31.03.2003 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 10 (GPS SVN 47, Navstar 53, USA 175) 21.12.2003 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 11 (GPS SVN 59, Navstar 54, USA 177) 20.03.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2R 12 (GPS SVN 60, Navstar 55, USA 178) 23.06.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2R 13 (GPS SVN 61, Navstar 56, USA 180) 06.11.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 1 (GPS SVN 53, Navstar 57, USA 183) (ex GPS-2R 14) 26.09.2005 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 2 (GPS SVN 52, Navstar 58, USA 190) (ex GPS-2R 15) 25.09.2006 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 3 (GPS SVN 58, Navstar 59, USA 192) (ex GPS-2R 16) 17.11.2006 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 4 (GPS SVN 55, Navstar 60, USA 196) (ex GPS-2R 17) 17.10.2007 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 5 (GPS SVN 57, Navstar 61, USA 199) (ex GPS-2R 18) 20.12.2007 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 6 (GPS SVN 48, Navstar 62, USA 201) (ex GPS-2R 19) 15.03.2008 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 7 (GPS SVN 49, Navstar 63, USA 203) (ex GPS-2R 20) 24.03.2009 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 8 (GPS SVN 50, Navstar 64, USA 206) (ex GPS-2R 21) 17.08.2009 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2F 1 (GPS SVN 62, Navstar 65, USA 213, Polaris) 28.05.2010 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 2 (GPS SVN 63, Navstar 66, USA 231, Sirius) 16.07.2011 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 3 (GPS SVN 65, Navstar 67, USA 239, Arcturus) 04.10.2012 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 4 (GPS SVN 66, Navstar 68, USA 242, Vega) 15.05.2013 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 5 (GPS SVN 64, Navstar 69, USA 248, Canopus) 21.02.2014 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 6 (GPS SVN 67, Navstar 70, USA 251, Rigel) 17.05.2014 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 7 (GPS SVN 68, Navstar 71, USA 256, Capella) 02.08.2014 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 8 (GPS SVN 69, Navstar 72, USA 258, Spica) 29.10.2014 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 9 (GPS SVN 71, Navstar 73, USA 260, Deneb) 25.03.2015 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 10 (GPS SVN 72, Navstar 74, USA 262, Antares) 15.07.2015 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 11 (GPS SVN 73, Navstar 75, USA 265, Altair) 31.10.2015 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 12 (GPS SVN 70, Navstar 76, USA 266, Betelgeuse) 05.02.2016 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-3 1 (GPS SVN 74, Navstar 77, USA 289, Vespucci) 23.12.2018 CC SLC-40 Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)(ex)
GPS-3 2 (GPS SVN 75, Navstar 78, USA 293, Magellan) 22.08.2019 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2) (upg.)
GPS-3 3 (GPS SVN 76, Navstar 79, USA 304, Matthew Hensen) (ex Columbus) 30.06.2020 CC SLC-40 Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)
GPS-3 4 (GPS SVN 77, Navstar 80, USA 309, Sacagawea) 05.11.2020 CC SLC-40 Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)
GPS-3 5 (GPS SVN 78, Navstar 81, USA 319, Neil Armstrong) 17.06.2021 CC SLC-40 Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)
GPS-3 6 (GPS SVN 79, Navstar 82, USA 343, Amelia Earhart) 18.01.2023 CC SLC-40 Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)
GPS-3 7 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx, Sally Ride) 202x CC Vulcan Centaur VC0S
GPS-3 8 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx, Katherine Johnson) 202x CC EELV-M (Vulcan Centaur VC0S or Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)
GPS-3 9 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx, Ellison Onizuka) 2025 CC EELV-M (Vulcan Centaur VC0S or Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)
GPS-3 10 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx, Hedy Lamarr) 202x CC EELV-M (Vulcan Centaur VC0S or Falcon-9 v1.2 (Block 5)
GPS-3F 1 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 2026 CC
GPS-3F 2 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 3 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 4 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 5 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 6 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 7 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 8 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 9 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 10 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 11 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 12 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 13 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 14 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 15 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 16 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 17 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 18 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 19 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 20 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 21 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC
GPS-3F 22 (GPS SVN xx, Navstar xx) 202x CC

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