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TRS Mk. 1 (ERS)

TRS [TRW]

From 1962 the US Air Force launched a series very small technology satellites called ERS (Environmental Research Satellites). The satelltes were built by TRW Systems Group for the United States Air Force Office of Aerospace Research (AFOAR). Depending on the shape, these satellites are also referred to as the Tetrahedral Research Satellite (TRS) or Octahedral Research Satellite (ORS).

The basic configuration of the TRS Mk.1 spacecrafts was a regular octahedron measuring 16 cm on a side. Solar cells mounted on each side of the faces provide sufficient electrical power to operate the experiments and the telemetry system when the satellite is illuminated by the sun. No internal battery or command system were provided. The satellite subsystems consisted of electrical power, antenna, telemetry, experiments, and mechanical structure.

Payloads:

  • TRS 1 (ERS 1): radiation instruments, failed to separate from Samos-E6 5
  • TRS 2 (ERS 2): transmitter to study the changes in the Earth's radiation belt as a result of the Starfish high altitude nuclear test detonation over Johnston Island on 9 July 1962, as well as to study the effect of such radiation on solar cells, 0.6 kg; failed to separate from the primary payload which was the KH-4 12 military reconnaissance satellite
  • TRS 3 (ERS 3): radiation and micrometeorite studies, carried a cosmic ray experiment as well as an infrared plume experiment, failed to reach orbit
  • TRS 4 (ERS 4): radiation and micrometeorite studies, carried a cosmic ray experiment as well as an infrared plume experiment, failed to reach orbit
  • TRS 5 (ERS 5): studied the radiation intensity of the Van Allen belts and the radiation damage to solar cells. The payload consisted of 132 solar and photovoltaic cells in various configurations, 0.7 kg
  • TRS 6 (ERS 6): studied the radiation intensity of the Van Allen belts and the radiation damage to solar cells. The payload consisted of 132 solar and photovoltaic cells in various configurations, 0.7 kg
  • TRS 7 (ERS 7): radiation and micrometeorite investigations, failed to reach orbit
  • TRS 8 (ERS 8): radiation and micrometeorite investigations, failed to reach orbit
  • TRS 9 (ERS 9): measured radiation damage to silicon solar cell samples. For this the satellite carried 132 n-on-p solar cells of which twenty were part of five experiment samples of four cells each, which included unshielded and shielded cells. There were also shielded and unshielded p-on-n solar cells. Data returned during the 11 days that information was collected, was correlated with data gathered by TRS-5 and TRS-6. The satellite's mass was 1.5 kg.
  • TRS 10 (ERS 10): Similar to TRS-9, failed to separate from MIDAS 9
Nation: USA
Type / Application: Experimental
Operator: USAF
Contractors: TRW Systems Group
Equipment: various: see above
Configuration: Tetrahedron 0.16 m (TRS Mk.1)
Propulsion: None
Power: Solar cells
Lifetime:
Mass: 1 kg
Orbit:
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
TRS 1 (ERS 1) 1962 βπ 11.11.1962 Va LC-1-1 p Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with Samos-E6 5 / failed to separate
TRS 2 (ERS 2) 1962 αχ 17.09.1962 Va 75-3-4 p Thor-DM21 Agena-B with KH-4 12 / failed to separate
TRS 3 (ERS 3) 1962-F09 17.12.1962 Va LC-1-2 F Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with MIDAS 6, TRS 4
TRS 4 (ERS 4) 1962-F09 17.12.1962 Va LC-1-2 F Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with MIDAS 6, TRS 3
TRS 5 (ERS 5) 1963-014B 09.05.1963 Va LC-1-2 Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with MIDAS 7, DASH 1, West Ford 2, TRS 6
TRS 6 (ERS 6) 1963-014C 09.05.1963 Va LC-1-2 Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with MIDAS 7, DASH 1, West Ford 2, TRS 5
TRS 7 (ERS 7) 1963-F09 12.06.1963 Va LC-1-2 F Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with MIDAS 8, TRS 8
TRS 8 (ERS 8) 1963-F09 12.06.1963 Va LC-1-2 F Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with MIDAS 8, TRS 7
TRS 9 (ERS 9) 1963-030B 19.07.1963 Va LC-1-2 Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with MIDAS 9, DASH 2, TRS 10
TRS 10 (ERS 10) 1963-030A 19.07.1963 Va LC-1-2 p Atlas-LV3 Agena-B with MIDAS 9, DASH 2, TRS 9 / failed to separate

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