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Molniya-2 (11F628)

Molniya-2 [ISS Reshetnev]

The Molniya were Soviet communication satellites operating from an inclined highly elliptical earth orbit of 500 km × 40000 km with 12 hour period for coverage of high northern latitudes.

The Molniya satellites feature a unique configuration. The pressurized, three-axis stabilized KAUR-2 satellite bus features six non-articulated solar arrays and is operated in a sun-pointed mode. The antennas are mounted on two telescopic arms and are pointable. Each antenna features an optical tracking system which provides information to direct one of the two antennas to the Earth.

The KAUR-2 bus features the KDU-414 propellant system with the S5.31 engine. From 1974 onwards, it was replaced with the KDU-414A with the S5.114 engine in 1974. It is derived from the propulsion system of the Venera 1VA probes.

Molniya-2 satellites were used for government communications via Orbita-2 ground stations. The payload consisted of two Segment-2 repeaters, which were developed by MNIIRS and operate in C-band (6 GHz for uplinks, 4 GHz for downlinks). They were used for civilian communications. The antenna systems consisted of two horn antennas with radiation pattern of 21.5

Several satellites, beginning with Molniya-1 3, carried an additional earth observation payload called Berkut consisting of two TV cameras, initially black and white, later also colour. This payload was used for meteorology and also for preparation of a early warning system.

Nation: USSR
Type / Application: Communication
Operator:
Contractors: NPO Prikladnoi Mekhaniki (NPO PM)
Equipment:
Configuration: KAUR-2
Propulsion: KDU-414 (S5.19) or KDU-414A (S5.114)
Power: 6 deployable solar arrays (940 W), batteries
Lifetime: 1 year
Mass: 1700 kg
Orbit: 500 km × 40000 km, 62.8 (typical)
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Molniya-2 1 1971-100A 24.11.1971 Pl LC-43/4 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 2 1972-037A 19.05.1972 Pl LC-43/4 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 3 1972-075A 30.09.1972 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 4 1972-098A 12.12.1972 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 5 1973-018A 05.04.1973 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 6 1973-045A 11.07.1973 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 7 1973-076A 19.10.1973 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 8 1973-106A 25.12.1973 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 9 1974-026A 26.04.1974 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 10 1974-056A 23.07.1974 Pl LC-43/4 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 11 1974-102A 21.12.1974 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 12 1975-009A 06.02.1975 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 13 1975-063A 08.07.1975 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 14 1975-081A 09.09.1975 Pl LC-41/1 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 15 1975-121A 17.12.1975 Pl LC-43/3 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Kosmos 837 (Molniya-2) 1976-062A 01.07.1976 Pl LC-43/4 P Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Kosmos 853 (Molniya-2) 1976-088A 01.09.1976 Pl LC-43/3 P Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 16 1976-116A 02.12.1976 Pl LC-43/4 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Molniya-2 17 1977-010A 11.02.1977 Pl LC-43/4 Molniya-M (Blok-ML)
Further Molniya missions: