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Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM, "Mangalyaan")

Mars Orbiter Mission [ISRO]

Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), informally also called Mangalyaan, is India's first interplanetary mission to the planet Mars with an orbiter craft designed to orbit Mars in an elliptical orbit. The Mission is primarily technological mission considering the critical mission operations and stringent requirements on propulsion and other bus systems of spacecraft.

One of the main objectives of the first Indian mission to Mars is to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. The probe is based on the Chandrayaan 1 lunar orbiter structure.

Following are the major objectives of the mission:

  • Technological Objectives:
    • Design and realization of a Mars orbiter with a capability to survive and perform Earth bound manoeuvres, cruise phase of 300 days, Mars orbit insertion / capture, and on-orbit phase around Mars.
    • Deep space communication, navigation, mission planning and management.
    • Incorporate autonomous features to handle contingency situations.
  • Scientific Objectives:
    • Exploration of Mars surface features, morphology, mineralogy and Martian atmosphere by indigenous scientific instruments.

The 15 kg instrument suite consists of:

  • Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP)
  • Methane Sensor For Mars (MSM)
  • Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyzer (MENCA)
  • Mars Color Camera (MCC)
  • Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (TIS)

MOM was launched on a PSLV-XL rocket on 5 November 2013 into a highly eccentric earth orbit. Firing the on-board engine six times over several weeks (November 7, 8, 9, 11, 16, and December 1), MOM departed on a Mars-bound trajectory on 1
December 2013. Mars orbit insertion was successfully conducted on 23 September 2014. The in-orbit life time is about 6 to 10 months.

Nation: India
Type / Application: Mars orbiter
Operator: ISRO
Contractors: ISRO
Equipment: see above
Propulsion: ?
Power: Deployable solar array, batteries
Lifetime: 1.5 years
Mass: ~1350 kg (launch), ~500 kg (Mars orbit)
Orbit: 377 km × 80000 km, 17.8 Mars orbit
Satellite COSPAR Date LS Launch Vehicle Remarks
Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM, "Mangalyaan") 2013-060A 05.11.2013 Sr FLP PSLV-XL