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GPS Navigation System

The Global Positioning System (GPS) , is an intermediate circular orbit (ICO) satellite navigation system used for determining one's precise location and providing a highly accurate time reference almost anywhere on Earth. The satellites in the GPS constellation are called NAVSTAR (Navigation System using Timing And ranging).

The system consists of a "constellation" of at least 24 satellites in 6 orbital planes. Each satellite circles the Earth twice every day at an altitude of 20,200 kilometers. The satellites carry atomic clocks and constantly broadcast the precise time according to their own clock, along with administrative information including the orbital elements of their own motion, as determined by a set of ground-based observatories.

There are two frequencies in use: 1575.42 MHz (referred to as L1), and 1227.60 MHz (L2). The L1 signal carries a publicly usable coarse-acquisition (C/A) code as well as an encrypted P(Y) code. The L2 signal usually carries only the P(Y) code. The keys required to directly use the P(Y) code are tightly controlled by the U.S. government and are generally provided only for military use.

The GPS system included following generations of GPS satellites:

Series Generation Number Launched Lifetime Mass (Launch) Manufacturer Launch Vehicles Remarks
NTS 2 Prototype 1 1977 431 kg Naval Research Laboratory Atlas-E/F SGS-1
GPS (Navstar) 1. 11 1978 - 1985 759 kg Rockwell Atlas-E/F SGS-1
Atlas-E/F SGS-2
GPS-2 (Navstar-2) 2. 9 1989 - 1990 1660 kg Rockwell Delta-6925
GPS-2A (Navstar-2A) 2. 19 1990 - 1997 1816 kg Rockwell Delta-7925
GPS-2R (Navstar-2R) 2. 13 1997 - 2004 2032 kg Lockheed Martin Delta-7925
GPS-2RM (Navstar-2RM) 2. 8 2005 - 2008 2032 kg Lockheed Martin Delta-7925
GPS-2F (Navstar-2F) 2. 12 2010 - 2014 15 1545 kg Boeing Atlas-5(401)
Delta-4M+(4,2)
Direct orbit insertion
GPS-3 (Navstar-3) 3. 8 planned 2018 ? kg Lockheed Martin Atlas-5(411)
Delta-4M+(4,2) (upg.)
Falcon-9 v1.2
Satellite Date LS   Launcher Remarks:
NTS 2 (P76-4) 23.06.1977 Va SLC-3W Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 1 (Navstar 1, OPS 5111) 22.02.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 2 (Navstar 2, OPS 5112) 13.05.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 3 (Navstar 3, OPS 5113) 07.10.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 4 (Navstar 4, OPS 5114) 11.12.1978 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 5 (Navstar 5, OPS 5117) 09.02.1980 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 6 (Navstar 6, OPS 5118) 26.04.1980 Va SLC-3E Atlas-F SGS-1
GPS 7 (Navstar 7) 19.12.1981 Va SLC-3E F Atlas-E SGS-1
GPS 8 (Navstar 8, OPS 9794) 14.07.1983 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2
GPS 9 (Navstar 9, USA 1) 13.06.1984 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2
GPS 10 (Navstar 10, USA 5) 08.09.1984 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2
GPS 11 (Navstar 11, USA 10) 08.10.1985 Va SLC-3W Atlas-E SGS-2
GPS-2 0 (Navstar 12) not launched
GPS-2 1 (Navstar 14, USA 35) 14.02.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 2 (Navstar 13, USA 38) 10.06.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 3 (Navstar 16, USA 42) 18.08.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 4 (Navstar 19, USA 47) 21.10.1989 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 5 (Navstar 17, USA 49) 11.12.1989 CC LC-17B Delta-6925
GPS-2 6 (Navstar 18, USA 50) 24.01.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 7 (Navstar 20, USA 54) 25.03.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 8 (Navstar 21, USA 63) 02.08.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2 9 (Navstar 15, USA 64) 01.10.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-6925
GPS-2A 1 (Navstar 23, USA 66) 26.11.1990 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 2 (Navstar 24, USA 71) 04.07.1991 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with Losat X
GPS-2A 3 (Navstar 25, USA 79) 23.02.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 4 (Navstar 28, USA 80) 10.04.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 5 (Navstar 26, USA 83) 07.07.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 6 (Navstar 27, USA 84) 09.09.1992 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 7 (Navstar 32, USA 85) 22.11.1992 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 8 (Navstar 29, USA 87) 18.12.1992 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 9 (Navstar 22, USA 88) 02.02.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 10 (Navstar 31, USA 90) 29.03.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with SEDS 1
GPS-2A 11 (Navstar 37, USA 91) 14.05.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 12 (Navstar 39, USA 92) 26.06.1993 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with PMG
GPS-2A 13 (Navstar 35, USA 94) 30.08.1993 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 14 (Navstar 34, USA 96) 26.10.1993 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 15 (Navstar 36, USA 100) 10.03.1994 CC LC-17A Delta-7925 with SEDS 2
GPS-2A 16 (Navstar 33, USA 117) 28.03.1996 CC LC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2A 17 (Navstar 40, USA 126) 16.07.1996 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 18 (Navstar 30, USA 128) 12.09.1996 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 1 (Navstar 42) 16.01.1997 CC LC-17A F Delta-7925
GPS-2R 2 (Navstar 43, USA 132) 23.07.1997 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2A 19 (Navstar 38, USA 135) 06.11.1997 CC LC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 3 (Navstar 46, USA 145) 07.10.1999 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 4 (Navstar 51, USA 150) 11.05.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 5 (Navstar 44, USA 151) 16.07.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 6 (Navstar 41, USA 154) 10.11.2000 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 7 (Navstar 54, USA 156) 30.01.2001 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 8 (Navstar 56, USA 166) 29.01.2003 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925 with XSS 10
GPS-2R 9 (Navstar 45, USA 168) 31.03.2003 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 10 (Navstar 47, USA 175) 21.12.2003 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2R 11 (Navstar 59, USA 177) 20.03.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2R 12 (Navstar 60, USA 178) 23.06.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2R 13 (Navstar 61, USA 180) 06.11.2004 CC SLC-17B Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 1 (Navstar 53, USA 183) (ex GPS-2R 14) 26.09.2005 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 2 (Navstar 52, USA 190) (ex GPS-2R 15) 25.09.2006 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 3 (Navstar 58, USA 192) (ex GPS-2R 16) 17.11.2006 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 4 (Navstar 55, USA 196) (ex GPS-2R 17) 17.10.2007 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 5 (Navstar 57, USA 199) (ex GPS-2R 18) 20.12.2007 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 6 (Navstar 48, USA 201) (ex GPS-2R 19) 15.03.2008 CC SLC-17 Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 7 (Navstar 49, USA 203) (ex GPS-2R 20) 24.03.2009 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2RM 8 (Navstar 50, USA 206) (ex GPS-2R 21) 17.08.2009 CC SLC-17A Delta-7925
GPS-2F 1 (Navstar 62, USA 213) 28.05.2010 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 2 (Navstar 63, USA 231) 16.07.2011 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 3 (Navstar 65, USA 239) 04.10.2012 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 4 (Navstar 66, USA 242) 15.05.2013 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 5 (Navstar 64, USA 248) 21.02.2014 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 6 (Navstar 67, USA 251) 17.05.2014 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 7 (Navstar 68, USA 256) 02.08.2014 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 8 (Navstar 69, USA 258, Spica) 29.10.2014 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 9 (Navstar 71, USA 260, Deneb) 25.03.2015 CC SLC-37B Delta-4M+(4,2)
GPS-2F 10 (Navstar 72, USA 262, Antares) 15.07.2015 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 11 (Navstar 73, USA 265, Altair) 31.10.2015 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-2F 12 (Navstar 70, USA 266, Betelgeuse) 05.02.2016 CC SLC-41 Atlas-5(401)
GPS-3 1 2018 CC Delta-4M+(4,2) (upg.)
GPS-3 2 2018 CC Falcon-9 v1.2
GPS-3 3 2019 CC Falcon-9 v1.2
GPS-3 4 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2
GPS-3 5 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2
GPS-3 6 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2
GPS-3 7 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2
GPS-3 8 CC EELV-M (Atlas-5(401) or Falcon-9 v1.2